School-based consultants acting as individuals or as members of a problem-solving team can deliver PRIME Implementation Supports to help implementers (e.g., teachers, parents, paraprofessionals) provide evidence-based intervention or supports to a child or adolescent. School-based consultants (e.g., school psychologists, counselors, special education teachers, instructional coaches) will be able to effectively implement PRIME if they have experience using an indirect service delivery approach, selecting appropriate evidence-based interventions, implementing evidence-based interventions, and conducting intervention evaluation. Please refer to the PRIME Manual Quick Guides on consultation and evidence-based interventions, available on the PRIME Materials page, for more information.
Implementation of PRIME
PRIME is to be delivered within an indirect problem-solving model. The process is indirect because the consultant supports another implementer who implements the intervention plan with the student. Studies to evaluate PRIME Implementation Supports occurred within Problem-Solving Consultation (also called Behavioral Consultation). It may also be delivered within the context of other evidence-based, indirect problem-solving models, such as School Consultation, Conjoint Behavioral Consultation, and Instructional Coaching. Nearly all problem-solving models consist of four distinct phases: Problem Identification, Problem Analysis, Intervention Implementation, and Intervention Evaluation. PRIME is relevant at the end of the Problem Analysis phase and continues to Intervention Implementation, as shown in the Figure below.
PRIME Components and Data Sources
Within PRIME, research-based Implementation Support strategies are organized into three levels. At Tier 1, proactive and feasible Implementation Support strategies, Direct Training and Implementation Planning, are recommended for all implementers. At Tier 2, a series of four strategies are designed to increase intervention implementation knowledge, fluency, and/or motivation for select implementers who struggle to implement adequately after Tier 1 supports. At Tier 3, Performance Feedback is designed to increase intervention implementation of those few implementers who require ongoing, intensive implementation support. These PRIME Implementation Supports are described in greater detail in the Introduction to PRIME Quick Guide, available on the PRIME Materials page.
PRIME is designed to promote intervention implementation and facilitate positive student outcomes. To do so, ongoing data streams from three sources – treatment integrity, progress monitoring, and the Implementation Beliefs Assessment – are needed. For more information about these data sources, please refer to Chapter 5-9 of the PRIME Manual.